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Quantitative PCR was performed for each sample as described below and experiments were repeated 3 times. The sequencing results from the RACE experiment also demonstrated that the transcriptional start site TSS for the novel isoform is located nucleotides upstream from the translation start site, and it corresponds to the TSS predicted by the Neural Network software. This vector expresses secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase SEAPa secreted form of human placental alkaline phosphatase, as a reporter molecule.

Acta— [ PubMed ]. The primers used are listed in Table 2. We showed that disruption of the STAT6 binding site by truncation or by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in loss of transcriptional up-regulation of Ano1 after IL-4 treatment, and up-regulation of Ano1 promoter activity was seen on cotransfection with STAT6.

In these conditions, the promoter activity of P0 was significantly increased compared with untreated controls Fig. Of particular interest in the current study is the presence of a very long intron between the exon allj and exon 1, with the intron between exon 1 and exon 2 also being long bp. Support Center Support Center.


Second row seats also slide aljj and backwards to optimize legroom, while the seats back tilts for improved comfort. The results show that the reporter vector fails to respond to IL-4 with an increased activity only in the case of the disruption of the STAT6 putative binding site Fig.

Acknowledgments This work is supported by U. In the present study, apj provide evidence that significant induction of expression was mediated through regulatory elements located within the first nucleotides in the P0 promoter.

To test whether the addition of 40 amino acids to the N terminus of Ano1 due to the translation of the exon 0 sequence changes the function of the channel, we examined the current density of the 2 isoforms by whole-cell electrophysiology. A Bar graph showing the results of the activity analysis by reporter gene luciferase assays of the construct bearing 13010 putative promoter P0.


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Schematic representation of the promoter-reporter constructs containing the promoter fragments of different lengths cloned into the reporter vector. The diversity of putative response elements is consistent with widespread and highly regulated expression of the various transcript of Ano1.

Currents were recorded by standard whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from HEK cells transfected with either of the Ano1 isoforms examined together with the fluorescent marker green fluorescent protein GFP. After PCR, alk bands were gel purified, cloned using the TA cloning kit Life Technologiesand sequenced to analyze the presence of converted cytosines; 20—50 clones per sample were analyzed.


To test the role of those transcription factors in the up-regulation of Ano1 in response to IL-4, the sequence of the putative binding site on the P0 promoter vector for each aljj them was disrupted by site-directed mutagenesis. Strege for the conception, completion, and analysis of the electrophysiology data shown in Fig. The results show a 6. These data confirm the presence of a previously unidentified exon located 93 kb upstream of the published exon 1 of the human ANO1 gene.

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TMEM16A, calcium-activated chloride channels, alternative splicing. Author information 13001 notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Based on these data, bp of genomic DNA upstream of exon 0 referred to as P0 were amplified by PCR, cloned into the luciferase reporter vector, and transiently transfected into HEK cells.

The authors especially thank Peter R. In the muscle layers of the human and mouse gastrointestinal tract, Ano1 is not present in smooth muscle cells but is expressed exclusively in the interstitial cells of Cajal Although there is abundant evidence supporting the role of Ano1 dysregulation in the pathogenesis of different diseases, the mechanisms underlying the differential expression of this ion channel and its splicing variants in health and in ajl are still elusive.

This is consistent with expression of Ano1 in a subset of cells within the muscle layer. Cell lines, culture conditions, and transfections T84 cells ATCC, Manassas, VA, USAa human epithelial cell line derived from a lung metastasis of colon carcinoma, have been shown to endogenously express Ano1 14 ; therefore, they are used here as an in vivo model to study the ANO1 promoter.


Please review our privacy policy. A Treatment with IL-4 up-regulated the activity of P0 promoter by 1. Bioinformatics, luciferase, expression, and ChIP assays demonstrate that the promoter drives Ano1 expression and is modulated by IL-4, the best characterized activator of Ano1, via the STAT6 transcription factor. In addition, we identify and characterize a promoter for ANO1 proximal to this exon. The activity of STAT transcription factors is influenced by their association with other proteins, either through direct interaction on a promoter or through posttranslational modification Characterization of human ANO1 promoter Prediction of possible promoter regions for the human ANO1 gene was performed using a bp sequence upstream of exon 0.

Chromatin immunoprecipitation ChIP experiments on T84 cells, which endogenously express Ano1, showed a 2.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Under basal conditions, the activity of each of the mutated construct was not different from the wild-type P0 construct data not shown. Identification of allj new exon for human ANO1 upstream of the published exon 1. Therefore, other transcription factors may also contribute to the modulation of the IL-4 stimulation pathway.

Luciferase assay To assess the activity of P0 as a promoter, the Ready-To-Glow secreted 133001 reporter system Clontech was used, according to the manufacturer instructions. To assess the activity of P0 as a promoter, the Ready-To-Glow secreted luciferase reporter system Clontech was used, according to the manufacturer instructions.

It is conceivable that, as a trade-off, within longer introns a lower filtering system is used to purge a,j splice sites The novel Ano1 isoform resulted in greater current density compared with controls. Twenty-four hours after transfection P0 resulted in a 6.

In conclusion, we described a novel exon for Ano1 located approximately 93 kb upstream of the published sequence. Differential expression of transcriptional variants is also found in other diseases.